How do we optimize the use of biomedical interventions?

Over the past decade, biomedical interventions—including voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), antiretroviral treatment, and tuberculosis treatment—have resulted in substantial gains in controlling the global HIV epidemic. More information is required, however, to ensure biomedical interventions are designed or adapted to achieve maximum impact. Project SOAR is generating evidence to help optimize real-world implementation of proven biomedical interventions. SOAR study findings will inform the U. S. Agency for International Development  and partner programs in achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets.


VMMC has been shown to substantially reduce the risk of HIV acquisition. Project SOAR’s extensive VMMC portfolio supports multiple countries with data to make informed policy and programmatic decisions about VMMC that address their specific needs and environments. SOAR is increasing access to and use of this data through user-friendly interfaces and dissemination strategies.


Antiretroviral treatment is a critical biomedical intervention that is assuming a larger role in HIV prevention as countries roll out “test and start” services, including for pregnant and post-partum women. SOAR’s research is examining the facilitators and barriers to delivering care and treatment as well as evaluating a variety of approaches to streamline services, reduce access barriers, and create a supportive environment to enhance client linkage to and retention in treatment services.


Tuberculosis (TB) is a common and deadly opportunistic infection in HIV-positive individuals. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is an effective treatment for young children infected with TB, often from an HIV and TB co-infected parent. SOAR is investigating how to optimize use of IPT by testing a nurse-led approach that aims to overcome challenges at the patient, provider, program, and policy levels.



Antiretroviral treatment




Voluntary medical male circumcision